19th Edition of
the  Three-continental F
estival MALAKI Ma KONGO – Paris

The call of Ne Vunda

Malaki ma Kongo Paris 2010

Malaki ma Kongo Paris 2010

On April 17th 2010, from 11 am to 10 pm, at the Salle Olympe de Gouges, 15 rue Merlin, 75011 Paris, the 19th edition of the three-continental Malaki ma Kongo Festival was held.

Organized by Malaki ma Kongo and Makitec / Editions Paari, in collaboration with Expressions Noires and the  local Public Administration of the 11th arrondissement of the city of Paris, this cultural inaugural event

was held thanks to Masengo Ma Mbongolo and Mawawa Mâwa-Kiese, authors of the  following festival issues:

  • * Stands of Ne Kongo diaspora ;
  • * Communications on Kongo spirituality;
  • * Communications by the authors of development projects;
  • * The variety of Kongo music expression;
  • * Theatre, art and space for children ;
  • * Kongo gastronomy.

Why re-launching the call of Ne Vunda

Ne Vunda

On january 6th 1608 – exactly 402 years ago – a Kongo prince, Nsaku ne Vunda – the first Ambassador sent from the king of Kongo to the Vatican – gave back his soul in Rome (Italy). The mission Ne Vunda was given was clear: telling the Pope that the men he sent to Kongo to bring the message from God made instead a pact with the slaveholders. These priests became actually the legal representatives of such slaveholders in the African continent.

It took 4 years of sailing to leave from Mbanza Kongo to Italy, up to the port of Livorno. The sailors from Kongo had to be very careful too, because it was the time when enslavery was at its peak. Therefore these sailors risked to end up into the enslaveholders’ hands and finally to the fields of cane sugar in Cuba or elsewhere in the American continent. A big part of this delegation from Kongo didn’t arrive to the final destination: they were 22 people when they left, but only 6 of them arrived to the Vatican.

It is therefore also in the memory of Ne Vunda that the XIXth edition of Malaki ma Kongo – the three-continental festival of Peace – was celebrated on sunday april the 17th, from h. 10:00 to 22:00 at 15 Hall Olympe de Gouges, rue Merlin, 75011 Paris.

NOTE: The following text is an automated translation made by Google. We are sorry we couldn’t get to have a good translation yet. Thanks for your patience.

The team that organized the festival was originally composed of seven people. The last few months, especially the last three weeks, she was limited to three people: Massengo, and Jackson Mawawa Babingui for the direction of the orchestra. Fortunately, she obtained the permanent assistance of Miss Jessica Rey on behalf of the association Black Expressions, as well as the writer Dominique M’Fouilou. There were also several players from the African diaspora, Caribbean, Europe and the Americas who were present at the festival. The room Olympe de Gouges had prepared 1,000 people, from morning to night, came to share this unique moment of Malaki Ma Kongo. Among the players who led the festival Malaki Ma Kongo, we can sort by category, activities, and the following persons:*

  • The Stands by the diaspora Ne Kongo
  • The editions of the Pan-African Journal of Innovation (Paari) organized a library which included books from several publishers. Held by N’Silu Mawawa, this library has had the honor to present to the public the book “Dictionary of Literary Congolese” Christmas Kodia Ramata, published April 17, 2010 editions Paar. Among the works shown on the stand, one could note some basic texts for the knowledge of Kongo culture. A partial list:
  1. Kongo, Languages ​​and mysteries, T. 1 and 2 Nkounkou d’Oliveira, Lille, NK Editions, 2007;
  2. African customary law. Proverbs judicial Kongo, and André Ryckmans Mwelanzambi Bakwa, Paris, l’Harmattan, 1992.
  3. The ancient kingdom of Kongo and Bakongo. Here are Ndona Beatrice and Jagas, Raphael Batsikama ba Mampuya my Ndâwla, Paris, l’Harmattan, 1999.
  4. The Kongo North West, Marcel Soret, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2005.
  5. The Knight of Soyo, Manckasa Como, Paris, Paar, 2006.
  6. Proceedings of the International Conference on Kimbangu, Paris, Editions Eki, 2007.
  7. Ethics and Politics, ed. David Mavoungui, Paris, Paar, 2004.
  8. Thoughts and Actions Policies, T. 1 and 2, Alphonse Massamba-Débat, Paris, Paar, 2009.
  9. Review Kongo Kultur, Mawa-Kiese of Mawawa, Paris, Paar, 2009. …
  10. Publishing Paar, led by Mawa-Kiese Mawawa were in the space of a day is the Mbong Ndubukulu (Literary Café), which has seen authors such as Kiyindou Liss, Dominique M’Fouilou, Nkounkou d’Oliveira, Anicet Kounougous Christmas Kodia Ramata, Guy Alexandre Sound Mbemba Congo, and many others, sign their books.
  • The Storyteller’s Stand of Kinsa Gabriel. Located at the entrance, the stand consisted of books, DVDs and CDs of the famous storyteller Kinsa Gabriel (Congo). Storyteller, griot, writer Kinsa there is a well of Kongo culture that has contributed much to this day Malaki Ma Kongo. Kinsa are participating for the second time Malaki in France (Berck and Paris).
  • The Storyteller’s Stand of Ne Nkamu. To the right of Kinsa was the stand of the NE Mbongui’eto NKamu of DR Congo. He exhibited almost the same type of products with the only difference there was in position before the image of Ne Muanda Nsemi the spiritual leader of Bundu dia Kongo, Kongo religion. But we must also note the appearance in self-publishing (Masamune Editions) Book Ne-Nkamu entitled Nzolele Na zonza Kikongo. A form of Kikongo-French combination, which has been much dedicated.
  • The stand ACAJEU Congolese Association for Youth Development, whose president is Balandamio mama. It is an association created by youth for youth. It deserves to be encouraged.
  • The Stand of Rhode Makoumbou. Across the width of the exhibition hall at the bottom and the middle has become Rhode Makoumbou dictating the law of the biggest and the strongest. Giant statues, high three to four feet, made from masterfully by mama Makoumbou, the young Congolese woman who continues to impress the world, engaging in this way, the immense creativity Kongo. What creativity! We knew the Senegalese Ousmane Sow, but we did not know that the school Congolese painting has not yet finished generating its geniuses who continue to disrupt the perspective and the perception of human reality. A young woman who paints the world of women’s African soil is innovation. Rhode was introduced to painting by his father, painter, David Makoumbou.
  • The stand of The locomotive. On the other hand, there was the locomotive of Ernest Biangue with an output of 5 DVDs on the Congolese culture. You could see pictures displayed on the actions that the association’s field of sustainable development (agriculture, small businesses …). These first four DVD’s and CD, centered around the Ngoma ya Kongo are outreach tools of the Kongo culture. The activities of this NGO are pragmatic in the soil. Educate youth creativity, with the means to board. Fighting against the rural exodus and the expatriation of African forces. The locomotive is proposed to organize the Pan-African Entrepreneurship week.
  • Stand editions of Papyrus Press Makisola Mawete. On the stand, you could see the rich production of this editor originally from Mbanza Kongo (Angola). The stand was shared with the Group Kimbanguiste interested in writing Mandombe. Gody Dia Kongo testified to visitors of his faith and Kimbanguist Mandombe writing, which he is writing revealed.
  • The Federation of Congolese from the Diaspora (FCD) was represented by Olivier Bidounga. She presented several papers on human rights, and issues of Fight Against Impunity in Africa.
  • The stand of Malaki Development, run by Letizia  Farisato of Malaki Ma Kongo Italy, who came straight from Italy despite of flights freeze due to volcanoes and train strikes!

Malaki Ma Kongo

Founded in 1991 in Congo Brazzaville, Malaki Ma Kongo / Festival of Peace, promotes African cultural roots to support sustainable development activities in the Congo and in Africa. It is a festival “ready to wear” on three continents, Africa, Europe, America: Congo, DR Congo and Benin, Italy, France, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Santo Domingo, Guyana, Martinique, Cuba and Venezuela.

Its Objectives: The preservation of collective memory Kongo;-enter into communion with our ancestors, stimulate sustainable development networks in the Kongo cultural area;-Promoting a Cultural Bridge over the Atlantic (Tourism Transatlantic ethics)-Say grand son of our little son that the parents of our parents lived. The stand-Malaki Development presented clothes and miscellaneous items made in Congo – Brazzaville. Shares of Malaki Ma Kongo Italy among others focus on fair trade and social advancement of young mothers in Pointe-Noire. Malaki is a partner in developing the Ethic Bank of the African Diaspora.  Masengo ma Mbongolo dedicated his book “The Haitian Vodou seen through the eyes of an African Kongo”, Vicenza (Italy), Malaki productions editions, 2003-2005. You could also see and buy this stand, the post Ne Vunda come straight from Italy. Malaki Italy presented three DVDs that summarize the previous three editions of Malaki Ma Kongo continents. These DVDs are on sale now with a focuses on the bicentennial of Haiti, and another on a Grap a Kongo (The Kongo of Guadeloupe).

Theater, art and children’s area

The children were also honored. Tata Ulrich Ntoyo hosted a workshop for making puppets. Children learned the art of making puppets. They are deployed in the room spontaneously creating puppet theater. Ntoyo Ulrich, is a multifaceted artist. Selected for the sixth Francophone Games Lebanon, Ulrich N’toyo is a storyteller of Congolese nationality, which combines song, dance and speech. He tells stories from Africa and elsewhere. He said voyages through time and space. In his country (Congo Brazzaville), N’toyo means a bird that sings in a village to announce a misfortune, but his N’toyo to him to witness the stories he tells. “I came as the tale comes to life … a month of March 1977 …”-It was noted the provision of the trio of Angel Keta Nganga, John and Barnabas Boundiafou Matsiona. We have presented a new version of Mami Wata-Blues, a play that tells Congolese life and its mysteries into the ground Kongo. – Among the storytellers, the audience listened to the best of them, from Kongo lands, and who reside in Paris. Ne Nkamu, Cultural Center of Mbong eto Luozi DRC, reminded us of the foundation of my Makuku tatu my lamba Kongo. Gabriel Kinsa, castanets in hand has given the public singing lullabies Kongo: “… Yimbieee Yimbi Yimbi Yimbi Ko ko”. But we must also say that it was he who opened the day Malaki Ma Kongo by launching an appeal, as the village, with a deer horn, at 10 am in Room Olympe de Gouges, followed by Co Co Co Ri, that he alone knows to imitate …

Kongo Gastronomy

Kongo women from Martinique and Congo – Brazzaville responded to the call Ne Vunda. They cooked us a good ntoba (sakasaka) or cassava leaves, accompanied by mivumba (stewed fish) and makes ngola Malangwa. The makayabu (salted fish), grilled skewers of beef and donuts. This kitchen Kongo in Africa has been honored by Nadine and Madeleine, and at the end there was a rupture of stock ntoba. But anyone who wanted to taste it had time to entertain their taste. The surprise came from the Kongo of Martinique. Elicia Mathieu with his father and two friends Krystel, Xavier, wanted to humbly submit to their ancestors Kongo on the other side of the Atlantic, the Kongo have retained not only their culinary art but also that they have innovated associating it with other Indian and Western culinary values. The audience had the honor to drip: the Paté Beef / Chicken, cod fritters, chicken in Colombo, the fried fish (dog sauce) and vegetables acherd of white rice, not to mention the coconut cake coconut pie, sandwich beef or chicken, veggies, etc..

Ah, the Coconut Punch, a real traditional drink. This blend of culinary Transatlantic both in form and in substance enriched the Malaki. Stewardship of the food was provided by Kiese-Kilema Mawawa, Jessica Rey, Deborah and Laetitia Kanoukounou. Deborah and Laetitia have also invested in the protocol.


Presenter, assisted by Guy Alexander Sounda Keta Nganga. Communications-on spirituality Kongo Nkoukou D’Oliveira, with a rich book production has maintained the concept of Tiya (fire) in Ngunza religion. Kingunza is the main underbody of spirituality Kongo. Ngunza is a word consisting of two phonemes: ngu meaning mother or strength and nza is land. Ngunza so it is ngudi nza, the mother of the earth or the power of the earth. As in all religions their primary functions are:-Utility-moralizing-dominator-free all religions Kongo, even those that are affiliated with the Judeo-christianity (Kimbanguism) and other modes of thoughts, are essentially Ngunza . The matsuanisme the ntokoïsme, are nothing but variations of ngunzisme. What differentiates religion Ngunza pro Western religions is the amputation of the last two dynamic “ruler and liberator” who were replaced by cowardice and submission. Before the great problems that their living space is subject, they find it difficult to express the depth of their thoughts. To understand the philosophical thought Kongo at the heart of the brief communication Nkounkou D’Oliveira, reading these books is required. Ne Nkamu Luyindula is in its second participation in the Malaki Ma Kongo. His first was in the seventh edition of Kongo Malaki my garden in 1997 Moto na Moto Bonguisa of Bandal (Kinshasa). Tata Masengo found himself in Kinshasa to escape the horrors of war in Brazzaville. Aneki Ntinu Lusaku Kongo and some brothers had decided that if the Kongo Malaki I can not stand on the right bank of the river Congo, the left bank was ready to host this event. It was enough that Masengo ma Mbongolo agrees. This was done and my Kongo Malaki realized the cultural bridge on the River Congo. Do Nkamu in its Communication of Paris, asked the public about the language used in my Kongo Malaki. This April 17, to Olympe de Gouges, it was concluded that the Kongo language and French are the ones that are most representative in the room. Hence his book “Nzolele zonza Kikongo na”, Communications of project development The slogan of this edition of Kongo Malaki is my culture in the service of responsible development. We believe that the works of our artists are usually the cultural heritage of a people. The destruction of our villages by the many wars in Angola, the two Congo, involves the destruction of our primary base lodges. Which would surely dry up our source of inspiration. Since culture is the basis for development, artists, women and men of culture Malaki Ma Kongo decided to create a space for discussion during the festival, around our problems every day. This is for those from the Kongo area to mobilize for development activities in the direction of the soil. As we mentioned above, in all countries, regardless of the economic power of states, governments need an active civil society. And that civil society must be supported by the government to help to work, where the means of state can not operate. It is this philosophy that Malaki is at the heart of the Call of Vunda Do in Paris. Thus, to this day of April 17, five organizations have agreed to present their activities to the public. ACAJEU: Miss and Mr Kiala Balandamio of ACAJEU (Congolese Association for the Future Youth), created March 3, 2007, spoke first. The young lady presented the objectives of the association are: Sponsor-creation (construction and equipment) for a reading center with a primary school-supplied with textbooks and school libraries;-Provide academic support to students through our local partners, distribution of textbooks to students (by the emulation system), collect and deliver from 700 to 800 pounds of France to the Congo-Develop new partnerships. This association is young and his actions are practical in the field. By the way Mama Balandamio, president, leaving soon to Congo to verify the applicability of the decisions in the field. La Locomotive: Ernest Biangue spoke of the Locomotiv. This association of which he is president is to: – the integration of African populations, including youth and women in a work environment – to encourage and support initiatives at the individual production and / or through cooperatives – to establish a dynamic organization at the local level for sustainable development. This association aims to create pan-African one week of entrepreneurship. It disseminates its activities through the DVD. Malaki-Development: Represented by the President Farisato Letizia, Italy Kongo Malaki my work around the sustainable and equitable development. The association coordinates the actions of field production in Pointe-Noire. The clothes produced by young mothers in rehabilitation are sold in Europe from Italy. The added value, returned to Pointe-Noire can hold a training school for sewing and agriculture. Despite the suspension of flights of aircraft in Europe, because of the cloud created by volcanoes and the train strike in France to Letizia required to be present at the festival. Motivated by the spirit of Ne Vunda (the traveler who stops at nothing), the Italian who lives in symbiosis with the Kongo culture was the designer of the Great Malaki Ma Kongo banner and the post Ne Vunda. Malaki-development, promoting social space is a department of the Cultural Association Kongo Malaki my research that deals with a method of sustainable development, appropriate to the Congo in these difficult times. Sustainable development and self-centered self of Man, taking into account the respect for the environment, human rights and the cultural dimension in all development projects. Malaki-development work following the logic of the Grameen Bank, which places the center of the interest the human condition. The purpose of the existence of Malaki-Development is looking for ways to revive economic confidence, hope in the lives of the Congolese people and ensure the survival of traditions in their natural environments: our villages and urban peripheries. Training Centre in Couture Hair and mothers of girls, and agricultural cooperatives that are supported by the Congo-Malaki development are evidence of our action in the soil. The more we are, we could together and contribute to the African Renaissance. Doctors of Africa: Dia Banzouzi Massamba of Doctors of Africa reminded us that African doctors living in Europe should not be forgotten in these times of renewal. International NGO Doctors and Health Workers for the Promotion of Primary Health Care. His motto: Health, Humanism and Development. Europe coordination is led by Banzouzi Samba Dia, who runs the same time the Center for Studies and Medicine Research in Africa (MEL). The Cerma work at social engineering, research and development, and studies funded by the experience … The main areas of work of Doctors of Africa are: emergency, health / HIV, nutrition and food, protection and early childhood development, water / sanitation / environment. The association has existed since 1993 and was created in Brazzaville. She is a member of A3D (Association of African Development Actors) The ethical bank of the African Diaspora: Sheikh Kuma, a Senegalese resident in Italy came to tell us about the creation in the near future of a bank for Africa and by Africans: The Ethical Bank of the African Diaspora. Its purpose is to stimulate and support the economic awakening of the African diaspora for sustainable development of Africa. Its objectives are:-Check, guide and develop the economies of the diaspora-Reduce the cost of remittances in productive circuit microfinance of small private enterprises and collective-To provide investment opportunities to the African Diaspora in their country of origin-Actively participate in sustainable development … African-Give the possibility to carry out professional activities related to their academic training. Sheikh Kuma was brilliant in his speech.

Open remarks

After the series of communications, there was a musical interlude of Born Nkamu Luyindula who deployed his talents as a storyteller Kongo, with the thumb piano. Mawa-Kiese Mawawa delivered a speech focused on Ne-Vunda call for a renaissance of African culture, through the Mbong ndubukulu ago (Literary Café). For its part Masengo My Mbongolo, delivering an opening address by the Malaki Ma Kongo stressed the apolitical and purely cultural essence of my Kongo Malaki. After these two speeches as the musical ball was opened under the technical direction of Jackson Babingui who ran in less than three months the Festival Orchestra.

The diversity of Kongo musical expression

The musical repertoire of me Kongo Malaki, organized and arranged mainly by Babingui Jackson had 17 songs, great artists 7 8 accompanied by musicians. Among the musicians there: rhythm guitar and solo-Olivier Marchand-Mahop Bass Guitar: Harry Gofin-Battery: Regis Samba-Percussion and saxophone: Barnabas Matsiona-Keyboard: Niangouna-Christian Chorus: Lolita Bemba, Elgie Samba, Loise Makambila . In order of appearance, we have seen on stage in a musical high level given by the following artists with their respective songs: Simbou Vili:-Mwinda;-Mama Kisukidi Albert, accompanied by Gustave Bimbou: Mono-Ngiele (Martyrs Kongo ) Thou shalt not kill. Youss Banda: Brazzaville;-Happy Birthday. Lulendo M’Vulu:-libertarianism;-Duo;-Jackson Ayaye Babingui:-Kimfunia; Buena Dio-Na;-Ntima Luaka; Betty Novalles 242-Medley: Say Moning Nzongo-Soul, accompanied by the percussionist Kongo Karata and Cara: Sandi-Ku Bo; Tchimpa-Vita;-Wala, Don Imeni-Fadel, accompanied by the song Mr. Yvon Mbaya and Mawa-Kiese Mawawa: Bantu-Committee is Hardos Massamba, along with the song by Audrey Minzere and Georgy Loubelo the percussion-Buyumba (castigating the ignorance)-di muangane Kongo (Appeal for Peace) Note that the songs of A. Kisukidi and Hardos Massamba, had not been worked by the orchestra, but still amazed the audience. Hardos Massamba was the surprise guest of the festival and the icing on the cake. Brazzaville and recently came on tour in France in the KA-BAA Festival organized by C. Diangouaya, the griot has honored the tradition of Malaki, which allowed him to be known of the Parisian public. The music was the final link that confirmed the greatness of my Kongo Malaki.


The public had come to attend the many Malaki Ma Kongo. Olympe de Gouges room were close to 1000 people from morning to night .. In the audience one could note the presence of Dean Maboungou Mbimba-Antoine, Christmas Kodia Ramata (writer, literary critic), Kiyindou Liss (writer), Eric Pantou (lawyer), Marceline Fila (writer) Denis Samba (psychiatrist), Loko Massengo (musician), Bedel Baouna, Cyriaque Bassok (producer), Dominique Mfouilou (writer), Mother Eve, Mboka Kiese, Paul Kounougous Expression Black, Anicet Kounougous, Lacsony, Nzunga Mbada Radio Frequency Pluriel, Casimir Kanoukounou, Vincent Lumwamu Ngaliema Ngunza of the Church of Paris, Laurent and Serge Dzaba Moukala Website Zenga-Mambu, Gustave Bimbou Website Congopage, Malonga Bruno, Lauriat Bikouta and Didier, Mr. and Mrs. Angel Kina, Jacques Bakoula, Bounguisa Olivier, Simone Morano from Italy, my Maloumbi Ntombo … All those who shared that day, but whose names are not listed above may forgive us.

Epilogue and prospects

Malaki Ma Kongo The festival was a unique day in Paris. Dean Maboungou Mbimba-Antoine is completely moved and tells us that “For 64 years I have lived in France for the first time I see such an event, organized by the Congolese and so large …” Finally The highlight of the evening was the real return on Nzongo Soul scene. We can not ignore his contribution to the dissemination of Congolese music in the 80s with French singers such as Bernard Lavilliers (The music is a cry that comes from within … Na na ba pe mboka nionso bikolo nionso …). Its symbolic Wala players was sung as the Ngo (Leopard) comes out of the forest … “Ngana bubelo Naku drunk? … Kani, Ngana mahumbu Naku me? Kani … “Yaya eh wala eh are ye! After the 17th of April, he gave his view: “… We need both Kongo Malaki my I need to Eskimos are disappearing. My Kongo Malaki, we also need animal species are disappearing and plant species as well. It is a cultural heritage that comes from the dawn of time … It belongs to humanity, it must return to humanity in all its facets. For the first time in France that I feel honored because for once my own countrymen took me on stage to give a concert before an audience as diverse … “The organizers were assailed by the general public for this event happening again in Paris. Children in the room expressed the wish to learn the language Kongo, to enrich their cultural heritage, as required in this globalization, while celebrating the cultural interpenetration, paradoxically implies the knowledge of our origins to better interact with the other, without which other human beings I can assume my human condition. Given this day of April 17, organizers intend to work towards creating a space that will aim the transmission of cultural values ​​Kongo, the Kimuntu to language learning through development activities towards the land.

Malaki Ma Kongo and Congo – Brazzaville: Clarification

Malaki Ma Kongo is a festival Tricontinental unfolding in Africa, America and Europe. Tricontinentalité This reflects the fact that people from the former Kongo kingdom, because of slavery are found in Haiti, Guadeloupe, Martinique, …, in America. In Africa, the Kongo area encompasses vast territories from Gabon to Namibia, through the Congo – Brazzaville, DR Congo and Angola. In Haiti, and the village Makongo mainly in the area of ​​Belle Fountain, Malaki Italy has provided assistance after the recent earthquake. Fan club Malaki Ma Kongo in Haiti has nearly two million supporters. Thus, we regret that some compatriots of Congo – Brazzaville confuse Malaki Malaki Ma Kongo to Congo Ma. And they want to restrict the activities of the single sphere Malaki they know: The Policy. Some go further and we want built in their “Tribalité” regressive, confining us not only to Congo – Brazzaville, but only in the Pool region. It’s a shame. Where would you rank the artists of the Congo, Angola, Guadeloupe, France, Martinique, Cuba … who actively participated in this first edition of Paris Malaki Ma Kongo? Malaki Ma Kongo The festival is not to be confused with the Republic of Congo – Brazzaville. We try to take what is good in the Kongo culture of this country, as we draw on our experience as Gabon, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Venezuela, Namibia, France, etc.. The cultural field through which Malaki is expressed to be completely dissociated from the political field which is generally limited to a definite geographical area. Through this clarification, we regret that some compatriots under the condition of anonymity dumped their defamatory insults against the organizers of Malaki, through certain websites. These behaviors, which are responsible for the owners of the websites in question, cast doubt on their credibility, ethics, and prove sufficiently the seriousness of the moral decline suffered by Congolese society in Brazzaville. Read the diatribes on the internet lately about the festival Malaki Ma Kongo Tricontinental are proof positive. Moral: Can we be giving lessons credible to those who govern our vast country, if we do not have our own scale of a single website, a tiny USB key, the ability to organize and to manage our media to be areas of education, learning tolerance, desire to live together, not places of resurgence of past hatreds?


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